Fennel Farming In India With The Complete Procedure

Fennel Farming is the most popular in India. Fennel’s botanical name is “Foeniculum Vulgare”, belonging to the family Apiaceae, and it is a perennial herb. Fennel seeds are aromatic spices and contain a good source of Potassium, fibre, and Vitamin C. Therefore, it is used in many soups, dishes, cooking vegetables, etc. India ranks first in fennel seeds production in the world. This seed has medicinal properties used for throat pain, headache, diarrhoea, proper digestion, constipation, etc. In addition, fennel is often used to increase the mother’s milk supplied by breast milk. 

Process of Fennel Farming 

When you start fennel farming, choose the equipment made according to the respective agriculture, which is most important. However, you can choose the john deere 5310 tractor for fennel cultivation. So you should be careful and aware of the equipment involved in fennel farming. However, you should buy the latest tractor models and other equipment. Let’s look at the process of fennel farming with complete specifications.

Suitable Soil Conditions

You can grow it in a wide range of soils which include loamy soils and black cotton soils having rich organic matter. Loamy to sandy loam soils are better for funnel cultivation. You should use the soil with a pH of 6.5-8. The farmer should use the soil that the agriculture department tests if he plans for commercial farming to manage the soil micronutrient deficiencies. 

Apart from this, we should make the soil suitable for fennel farming by preparing it with the help of farm implements and machines, including tractors, tillers, cultivators etc. The tractor is the most prominent factor while using the equipment in fennel farming, and when you start farming, you need to use the Eicher 380 tractor or any other tractor model.

Sowing and Propagation of Fennel

Farmers cultivate the fennel through seeds; they can directly sow the seeds in the field. The accurate time to sow the seeds is mid-September to mid-October. You should take care of the fennel so that delay should not be while sowing, which reduces the yield. Farmers should keep the distance of 45 cm between two rows and 10 cm between two crops. You should sow the seeds at a depth of 3 to 4 cm. Generally, 1 acre requires 5 to 6 kg of seeds for sowing directly. For seeds to germinate, it takes around 10 days. 

Fertilisers and Manures for Fennel farming

While preparing the land, you should supplement the soil with 5 to 8 tons per acre of well-decomposed FYM. Farmers should keep the 3:1.5:1 N: P: K ratio and apply it 3 times in equal parts; the first time, 60 and 90 days after sowing.   

Irrigation Requirement

Fennel cultivation requires 2 to 3 light irrigations until the seeds start germination. Thereafter, you should irrigate every 15 to 21 days. Formation and flowering are important stages for a good yield and quality; hence proper moisture levels must be maintained to increase the yield. You should avoid the water stress and waterlogging conditions at this stage.

Weed Control in Fennel Farming

Weed control is an important step in fennel cultivation. You can control the weeds using chemicals and also mechanically. Herbicide weeds can be controlled with the use of Pendimethalin. You should carry out the first hoeing and weed after 1 month of sowing. When it comes to herbicides for controlling weeds, Pendimethalin is the most effective. Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg/ha can be supplemented with one hand weeding after 45 days of sowing as a pre-emergence application.

Pests and Disease Control in Fennel production

You can control pests like thrips, aphids, beetles, leaf blight, leaf-eating caterpillars, Fusarium wilt and Powdery mildew by using different chemicals at different concentrations. For example, farmers use the Methyl demeton to control aphids, other insects and thrips. By spraying wet sulphur, you can control diseases like Leaf blights, Powdery mildew, and Fusarium wilt.

When and How to Harvest Fennel Crop

The farmer has chosen fennel seeds which require at least 6 months to mature after sowing, depending on the variety. You harvest when the seeds fully develop and mature but green in colour by plucking or collecting the tubers. Harvesting takes at least 30-35 days as the drains should be broken twice or thrice at an interval of 10-12 days.

Drying of Fennel Seeds

You collect the dry umbels under the sun for 2 to 3 days and in the shade for 10 to 12 days. Then, the grading and cleaning process separates seeds from the umbels. You should take extreme care while storing the seeds as they are prone to frost. You should spray 0.1% of Sulphuric acid to prevent the seeds from frost.  

Fennel Varieties

In the below section, the following are some of the varieties of fennel grown in India.

Gujarat Fennel-1

This cultivar is bushy and tall with oblong, medium-bold, dark green seeds. This variety is tolerant of leaf spots and sugary disease. The maturity time of this seed is 225 days. One can obtain a 16.0 to 16.5 quintal seed/ha average yield. This variety is suitable for early sowing and is tolerant to drought conditions.    


Medium tall plants with diffuse branches; 5.75 QTL/ha. Matures in 225 days for an ideal yield. It is suitable for drought-prone, waterlogged, saline and alkaline for hilly areas. 


This variety is small, with small, long and coarse grains of small size. Generally, this variety matures in 110-125 days. The estimated yield is about 17 quintals of seed/ha.


This variety has a thick stem, tall, erect, long and thick grain. Generally, this variety matures in 145 to 160 days. About 16 quintal seed/hectare yield is obtained from this variety.


This cultivar is tall, spreading with medium-sized, hairless and green seeds. This variety is tolerant to leaf spot, leaf blight and sugar disease. This variety matures in 225 to 230 days. It yields about 13 quintals of seed/ha.

For further information regarding fennel farming in India, stay tuned with us.

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